When a tooth does not respond to root canal therapy, endodontic surgery may be necessary. This procedure is called an apicoectomy or root-end surgery.
After local anesthesia is administered, the endodontist makes a small incision in the gum near the tooth and removes inflamed or infected tissue surrounding the root.
The tip of the root is also removed and a small filling is placed to seal off the canal. The gums are then sutured back in place and an ice pack is applied to help reduce inflammation.
Most patients resume normal activities the next day.